Multilevel effects of alcohol among early adolescents in an urban school district

  • Julie M. Croff Oklahoma State University
  • Ronald B. Cox Oklahoma State University
  • Isaac J. Washburn Oklahoma State University
  • Chao Liu Department of Psychology, Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH
  • Clinton L. Broadbent Department of Teacher Education & Family Development, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT
Keywords: alcohol use, partent involvement, peere deviance, middle school, culture


Aims: To examine how interpersonal interactions within and between the social networks formed by teachers, parents, students, and others shape the unique culture of the school, which in turn, reciprocally exerts a determining influence on each individual in the network.

Design: Cross-sectional study exploring whether factors associated with alcohol use at the individual level also exert influence on the culture of a school.

Setting: Twelve middle schools within an urban school district in the Midwestern United States.

Participants: Seventh grade students (N = 1,620).

Measures: Lifetime alcohol use behaviors; mothers’ and fathers’ involvement in their child’s education; and peer deviance. 

Findings: The findings of this study suggest that as parents’ involvement in education increases, and as peer deviance decreases, there are direct benefits to the child, and a protective effect for other children within the school when, in the aggregate, parental involvement increases and peer deviance decreases.

Conclusions: The effect of interventions to improve parent involvement and reduce peer deviance, with examinations at the individual-level and school-level, warrant future study.

How to Cite
Croff, J., Cox, R., Washburn, I., Liu, C., & Broadbent, C. (2020). Multilevel effects of alcohol among early adolescents in an urban school district. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 8(2), 88-94.